SMARTOPTM (Symmetric Multispecific Antibodies with Relative-affinities fine-Tuned by phage Off-rate and PH-selections) is another proprietary technology platform that constructs novel bispecific or multi-specific antibodies for biotech and pharmaceutical research and development. SMARTOP™ antibodies shares several features with LEMMAb™ antibodies as this type of antibodies are also symmetrical and free of mismatches, more soluble, less prone to aggregate, simpler to purify, and expressed in higher yield. In addition, SMARTOPTM antibodies are selected by slower off-rate and better tolerance for the lower pH values in tumor microenvironment. As a result, SMARTOP™ antibodies tend to have improved tumor retention and more tailored target engaging kinetics. They also enjoy decreased immunogenicity and improved binding affinity, safety profiles, and developability.